Parentage verification is based on the comparison of genetic information from Offspring, Dam and Sire. The basis of parentage verification can be used in many species, including mammals, birds, fish and humans. Sample material such as hair roots, swabs, semen and several other materials can be used for parentage verification. Of each sample, a DNA-profile is established using DNA-markers. The DNA-profile from each sample is stored in a database, and can be presented as barcode. A barcode is unique for an individual.
The process of parentage verification involves a comparison of the genetic information present in an offspring with the DNA present in the possible parents. For a correct parentage, all genetic information in an Offspring must be present in the combination of Dam and Sire. In most parentage verifications, the reliability of the analysis is at least 99,5 percent. In addition to parentage verification, a DNA-profile can be used to verify the identity of an individual. The reliability of such analysis is extremely large, because all genetic information in two samples must be identical.
If the DNA profile of the parent(s) is performed in a laboratory other than VHL / CTG / VHP, it can occur the profile of the offspring can't be compared with the profiles of the parents. The reason can be the testing of other hereditary characteristics at the other laboratory.
Test specific information
This test is in accordance with the specifications of the Australian Shepherd Club of America (ASCA). The test results performed by Certagen are approved by ASCA. The markers tested are not identical to those recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG).
Please order this test if you want to verify the parentage of the offspring.
The STR marker set previously used by ASCA has been replaced by a different technology (SNP markers). The ASCA has already implemented the change. Both sets of markers cannot be compared with one another. We will also change the analysis over the course of the year in consultation with the ASCA. In order to ensure a smooth transition, please provide EDTA or Heparin blood for analysis. All samples that have been or will be genotyped with STR in between May 2021 and implementation of the SNP markers at Certagen, will also be typed with the new technology free of charge.
The generated STR genotypes will be accepted by ASCA until we have implemented the new set of SNP markers.
If you have any questions about the changes and the implications for parentage verification, please contact ASCA.
Please note that this order includes the determination of the DNA-profile of the offspring and the comparison of this profile to the respective parent’s profiles in our database. In case that the DNA-profiles of the respective parents (sire, dam or both) are not yet stored in our database, you need to order the determination of the respective parent’s DNA-profiles additionally (H255).
Parentage analysis based on DNA can be done at any moment in life. A DNA-profile does not change during life. The assessment of a DNA-profile can be done using virtually every material that includes cellular and nuclear material.
The Turnaround Time (TAT) depends on various factors, such as the shipment time of your sample to the test location, the test method(s) and whether the tests are performed completely or partially by a Partner Lab or Patent owner.
The TAT of tests performed at our facilities is normally 10 working days after receipt of the sample at the testing laboratory (VHL, VHP or Certagen). For tests performed by a Partner Laboratory (so-called "partner lab test") or patent owner, the TAT is at least 20 working days after receipt of your sample. Because the shipment time to our Partner Labs or patent owner may vary due to factors we cannot influence, the mentioned 20 working days are therefore an estimate.
Sometimes it is necessary to re-run your sample. We call this a retest. In that case, the TAT will of course be extended.
Location of disease or trait
Parentage verification based on DNA can in principle be performed using any material that contains cells with a nucleus.
This DNA test is available for the following breeds: Australian Shepherd, Australian Shepherd Miniature & Toy. Additional information is available in the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ).
For this DNA test we accept the following materials: Blood EDTA, Blood Heparin. Please contact Dr. Van Haeringen Laboratorium if you wish to submit other material as listed.
The result of a parentage verification or control of identity is restricted to the questions asked. In routine cases, the conclusion is based on a large number of DNA-markers. This results in a quality of more than 99 percent if both parents are present. The reliability of a parentage verification is reduced if parents are missing or need to be reconstructed. Also, the quality of the test is influenced by the genetic variation within a population.
In parentage verification DNA-markers are visualized, in which a DNA-marker has two genetic variants. One genetic variant is paternal in origin, whereas the other genetic variant is maternal. It is possible to assess if any genetic variant is present in an offspring that is not detected in a parent. Visualizing sufficient DNA-markers will provide a good reliability to parentage verification.
Severity of Disease
Parentage verification, kinship analysis and/or control of identity are no disease.