Dr. van Haeringen Laboratorium B.V.



Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) refers to a group of inherited blinding canine diseases. Depending on the mutation the blindness develops faster or slower. A large number of varieties of PRA are currently known to affect several breeds. Genetic information about PRA for the Miniature Schnauzer is not yet fully researched and known, which is also the case for the mutation that causes PRA. Further research is necessary, which is very important for the development of new tests. Until final conclusions on the genetic cause of PRA in Miniature Schnauzer are made, the HIVEP3 variant will be used in a genetic testing environment.

Test specific information

This test is performed by Wisdom. Previously known as PRA-B RISK VARIANT.


‘Early onset’ – This phrase indicates, that the symptoms of the disease can be detected at a lower age. ‘Early onset’ is the opposite of ‘late onset’, in which symptoms may be present at later ages. The phrases are used because the mutation causing ´early onset´ symptoms may be different compared to the mutations causing ´late onset´ symptoms.

Turnaround time

The Turnaround Time (TAT) depends on various factors, such as the shipment time of your sample to the test location, the test method(s) and whether the tests are performed completely or partially by a Partner Lab or Patent owner.

The TAT of tests performed at our facilities is normally 10 working days after receipt of the sample at the testing laboratory (VHL, VHP or Certagen). For tests performed by a Partner Laboratory (so-called "partner lab test") or patent owner, the TAT is at least 20 working days after receipt of your sample. Because the shipment time to our Partner Labs or patent owner may vary due to factors we cannot influence, the mentioned 20 working days are therefore an estimate.

Sometimes it is necessary to re-run your sample. We call this a retest. In that case, the TAT will of course be extended.

Location of disease or trait

This disease mainly affects vision, and may result in blindness.

Breed dependence

This DNA test is available for the following breeds: Miniature Schnauzer. Additional information is available in the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ).

Sample type

For this DNA test we accept the following materials: Blood EDTA, Blood Heparin, Semen, Swab, Tissue. Please contact Dr. Van Haeringen Laboratorium if you wish to submit other material as listed.


• Homozygous wild type/Clear: the dog carries NO copies of the risk variant; will not develop Type B PRA
• Heterozygous/Carrier Risk Variant: the dog carries ONE copy of the risk variant; will not develop Type B PRA
• Homozygous Risk Variant: the dog carries TWO copies of the risk variant; at high risk of developing Type B PRA

The Type B PRA test results are reported as Risk Variants because, although dogs carrying two copies of the variant are very likely to develop PRA, a subset (14%) of the research sample set that were homozygous for the variant did not develop PRA by 7 years of age. It is not clear at this time whether the variant represents a causal mutation –and that other factors influence the “penetrance” of the mutation—i.e. its ability to cause disease-- or if the variant is a genetic marker that resides near the causal mutation. OptiGen and the University of Pennsylvania scientists will continue research aimed at better understanding this question. Dogs that are Homozygous Risk Variant for Type B PRA have a high risk of developing Type B PRA. Within the research sample set, these dogs had an 86% chance of developing PRA, based on the initial research group of 108 genotyped dogs.


This genetic factor is inherited in an autosomal, recessive, mode. This means, that the individual can be free of the disease (homozygote normal), affected (homozygous affected) or carrier (heterozygous).

Carriers may spread the mutation in a population without showing symptoms themselves. Because of this, it is extremely important to identify carriers correctly to prevent spreading of a mutation.

Severity of Disease


Code H349


Not available in webshop – please contact us for information.
Request information