During the last decades, a large number of scientific publications have described the genetic principles of coat colour and coat variation. Coat colours and coat variations are influenced by many hereditary factors. The DNA-tests are based on physiological effects in the body, in which the production and distribution of pigments result in many coat colour variants. In several cases, the coat colour of an animal may only be decided using DNA-tests.
A mutation in the KIT-gene is associated with a white spotting pattern in German Shepherd Dogs, this pattern is also called Panda White Spotting. The mutation is very recent, it appeared spontaneously in a female born in 2000. The gene for white-spotting is known as the S-locus (MITF-Gene), however this mutation in the German Shepherd dogs is in a different gene then the mutation causing white spotting in other dog breeds. The mutation causes white markings on the face, limbs, belly, neck, and tip of the tail, with the white being concentrated toward the front of the dog, similar to the irish spotting pattern. The amount of white can vary from dog to dog. The mutation that causes the Panda White pattern in German Shepherd dogs is in homozygous state (two copies of the mutation) considered embryonic lethal as no live dogs with the pattern and with two copies of the mutation have been observed. This means that pups that are homozygous for the Panda mutation do not develop in the uterus and are reabsorbed very early in the development process. Dogs that are heterozygous (one copy of the mutation) do not have any health defects associated with the Panda pattern. The Coat Colour Panda White Spotting test (H354) tests for the genetic status of the KIT-gene. This gene has two variants (alleles), P and N. The allele P is dominant. One copy of the P allele results in dogs with the Panda white pattern. Two copies of the P allele result in early embryonic death. The allele N does have no effect on the coat colour.
Test specific information
Since 2015, two brands have been developed. CombiGen®
is mainly directed at veterinarian applications, whereas CombiBreed®
is mainly directed at breeders and/or owners.
Detailed information about Coat Colours and Coat Variation is presented at www.combibreed.com.
Most coat colours and coat types are usually visible directly after birth.
The Turnaround Time (TAT) depends on various factors, such as the shipment time of your sample to the test location, the test method(s) and whether the tests are performed completely or partially by a Partner Lab or Patent owner.
The TAT of tests performed at our facilities is normally 10 working days after receipt of the sample at the testing laboratory (VHL, VHP or Certagen). For tests performed by a Partner Laboratory (so-called "partner lab test") or patent owner, the TAT is at least 20 working days after receipt of your sample. Because the shipment time to our Partner Labs or patent owner may vary due to factors we cannot influence, the mentioned 20 working days are therefore an estimate.
Sometimes it is necessary to re-run your sample. We call this a retest. In that case, the TAT will of course be extended.
Location of disease or trait
Genetic factors influencing coat colours and coat types are usually visible on the outside of an individual. Several factors may be hidden by the external variation.
This DNA test is available for the following breeds: Belgian Shepherd, Dutch Shepherd Dog, German Shepherd. Additional information is available in the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ).
For this DNA test we accept the following materials: Blood EDTA, Blood Heparin, Semen, Tissue, Swab, Genotek Swab. Please contact Dr. Van Haeringen Laboratorium if you wish to submit other material as listed.
Coat colours and coat types are based on many genetic factors. For each factor, a separate test result will be returned.
Various genetic factors influencing coat colour and coat types are inherited in a dominant or recessive mode. Coat colours are influenced by a large number of genetic factors.
Severity of Disease
Factors influencing coat colour and coat types are usually not related to diseases.